Ultrasonic Stimulation of Extraction Processes
I.Arutunov, I.F.Kuzkina, V.P.Zubov, N.A.Bulytchev (Moscow Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia); O.V.Abramov (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of RAS, Moscow, Russia)
The main goals of extraction technology are an increase in the yield of valuable products, decrease in energy consumption and improvement of environmental protection. These goals could be achieved using ultrasonically-assisted extraction due to considerable increase in the rates of mass transfer under ultrasonic action. Many currently existing technologies of the preparation of vitamins, perfume components and ether oils are based on extraction processes limited by diffusion and mass transfer. Preliminary data show that the application of ultrasound can considerably increase the rates of diffusion and mass transfer and thus decrease the extraction time, temperature, increase the yield of products and improve their quality. The influence of ultrasound on the extraction of vitamins from wormwood, mint, zveroboy and also ash berry, dog-rose, guilder-rose and apple has been investigated. The extraction was achieved using a laboratory ultrasonic probe (model UZDN.A) operating at 22 kHz and a power of 130 W (nominally 20 W/cm2). The effect of ultrasound intensity and treatment time on the degree of vitamins extraction was studied. It is shown that in the presence of ultrasound the same yield of products as in traditional technology is achieved in 50 - 500 times quickly. For the extraction of vitamins from sweet-braes or ash berry, ultrasonic technology needs only half an hour. Water and water-alcohol extraction was investigated. In all cases a high rate of mass transfer process under ultrasonic action was shown.
Section : 11